UN38.3 Rev.5的測試內容(網路資料整理)

隨著手提式電子產品越來越普及,鋰電池的應用也越來越廣,不過由於鋰電池品質的良莠不齊,經常聽聞其造成冒煙燃燒爆炸…等意外事件,尤其如果意外發生在飛行途中的航空器(Aircraft)上將危急飛機上所有機組員的安全。

有見於此,為了確保航空運輸安全,並滿足旅客對含鋰電池貨物安全運輸之需求,航空公司現在幾乎都會依據國際航協《危險物品規則》的相關規定,要求運送貨品中的每個類型鋰電池及鋰電池組,都必須經過測試,證明其已經符合《聯合國危險物品運輸試驗和標準手冊》第3部分38.3款(一般簡稱UN38.3測試)的所有要求。

既然UN38.3的測試項目關係到所有鋰電池的安全,當然要給它來瞭解一下內容囉!







UN38.3的檢測項目則包含下列八大項:

  1. 高空模擬試驗(Altitude Simulation):
    模擬空運時高空中的低氣壓環境。
    在壓力11.6kPa,溫度20± 5°C的條件下,存放6H以上。

    Test cells and batteries shall be stored at a pressure of 11.6 kPa or less for at least six hours at ambient temperature (20 ± 5 °C).

  2. 熱沖擊(Thermal Test):
    用來評估在溫度快速變化的情況下,電池的整體密封性能。
    在(40± 2°C~72± 2°C)的條件下進行高低溫衝擊試驗,在極限溫度中存放時間6h,高低溫轉換時間30min,衝擊10次,室溫(20± 5°C)存放24H,試驗總時間至少一周。

    Test cells and batteries are to be stored for at least six hours at a test temperature equal to 72± 2 °C, followed by storage for at least six hours at a test temperature equal to – 40 ± 2 °C. The maximum time interval between test temperature extremes is 30 minutes. This procedure is to be repeated until 10 total cycles are complete, after which all test cells and batteries are to be stored for 24 hours at ambient temperature (20 ± 5 °C). For large cells and batteries the duration of exposure to the test temperature extremes should be at least 12 hours.

  3. 振動(Vibration):
    模擬運輸過程中所可能碰到的振動。
    15min內從7Hz至200Hz完成一次往復對數掃頻正弦振動,每個軸向各3H,完成三維軸向共12次振動。

    Cells and batteries are firmly secured to the platform of the vibration machine without distorting the cells in such a manner as to faithfully transmit the vibration. The vibration shall be a sinusoidal waveform with a logarithmic sweep between 7 Hz and 200 Hz and back to 7 Hz traversed in 15 minutes.
    This cycle shall be repeated 12 times for a total of 3 hours for each of three mutually perpendicular mounting positions of the cell. One of the directions of vibration must be perpendicular to the terminal face.

  4. 機械衝擊(Shock):
    模擬運輸過程中所可能發生的碰撞及沖擊。
    150g、6ms或50g、11ms半正弦衝擊,每個安裝方向正反各進行3次,總共18次。

    Test cells and batteries shall be secured to the testing machine by means of a rigid mount which will support all mounting surfaces of each test battery. Each cell or battery shall be subjected to a halfsine shock of peak acceleration of 150 gn and pulse duration of 6 milliseconds. Each cell or battery shall be subjected to three shocks in the positive direction followed by three shocks in the negative direction of three mutually perpendicular mounting positions of the cell or battery for a total of 18 shocks.
    However, large cells and large batteries shall be subjected to a half-sine shock of peak acceleration of 50 gn and pulse duration of 11 milliseconds. Each cell or battery is subjected to three shocks in the positive direction followed by three shocks in the negative direction of each of three mutually perpendicular mounting positions of the cell for a total of 18 shocks.

  5. 外短路測試(External Short Circuit):
    模擬處理電池時可能發生的外短路情況。
    在55± 2°C、外電阻<0.1Ω條件下短路,短路時間持續到電池溫度回到55± 2°C後1H,觀察6H。

    The cell or battery to be tested shall be temperature stabilized so that its external case temperature reaches 55 ± 2 °C and then the cell or battery shall be subjected to a short circuit condition with a total external resistance of less than 0.1 ohm at 55 ± 2 °C. This short circuit condition is continued for at least one hour after the cell or battery external case temperature has returned to 55 ± 2 °C.

  6. 碰撞測試(Impact):
    模擬運輸過程中可能發生的受重物沖擊情形。
    9.1kg重物自61± 2.5cm 高處落於放有15.8mm 圓棒的電池上,檢測電池表面溫度,觀察6h。

    The sample cell or component cell is to be placed on a flat smooth surface. A 15.8 mm ± 0.1mm diameter, at least 6 cm long, or the longest dimension of the cell, whichever is greater, Type 316 stainless steel bar is to be placed across the centre of the sample. A 9.1 kg ± 0.1 kg mass is to be dropped
    from a height of 61 ± 2.5 cm at the intersection of the bar and sample in a controlled manner using a near frictionless, vertical sliding track or channel with minimal drag on the falling mass. The vertical track or channel used to guide the falling mass shall be oriented 90 degrees from the horizontal supporting surface.
    The test sample is to be impacted with its longitudinal axis parallel to the flat surface and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the 15.8 mm ± 0.1mm diameter curved surface lying across the centre of the test sample. Each sample is to be subjected to only a single impact.

  7. 過充測試(Overcharge):
    評估在經受過充條件下,可再充電的能力。
    在2倍的最大連續充電電流和2倍的最大充電電壓條件下,對電池過充24H,觀察7天。

    The charge current shall be twice the manufacturer’s recommended maximum continuous charge current. The minimum voltage of the test shall be as follows:
    (a) when the manufacturer’s recommended charge voltage is not more than 18V, the minimum voltage of the test shall be the lesser of two times the maximum charge voltage of the battery or 22V.
    (b) when the manufacturer’s recommended charge voltage is more than 18V, the minimum voltage of the test shall be 1.2 times the maximum charge voltage.
    Tests are to be conducted at ambient temperature. The duration of the test shall be 24 hours.

  8. 強置放電(Forced Discharge):
    評估電池或可再充電電池單元在強制放電條件下的經受能力。
    電池串連12V直流電源,以最大放電電流進行強制放電,觀察7天。

    Each cell shall be forced discharged at ambient temperature by connecting it in series with a 12V D.C. power supply at an initial current equal to the maximum discharge current specified by the manufacturer.

UN38.3試驗後的判斷標準:

網路上的參考文章:
UN38.3參考資料 PDF 下載 (連結遺失)
百度對UN38.3的解釋
威凱檢測-第五版UN38.3解釋 (連結遺失)
UN38.3危險物品運輸法規ST-SG-AC10-11-Rev5-Amend1 (英文 PDF 下載)(連結遺失)


延伸閱讀:
鋰電池攜帶上飛機的乘客須知
News Letter: 台灣市場鋰電池安規要求CNS15364
出差小撇步─坐飛機,不可攜帶充電電池超過100瓦小時

訪客留言內容(Comments)

UN38.3危險物品運輸法規ST-SG-AC10-11-Rev5-Amend1 Thermal test已經修改為72±2°C如下:
38.3.4.2.2 Test procedure
Test cells and batteries are to be stored for at least six hours at a test temperature equal to72± 2 °C, followed by storage for at least six hours at a test temperature equal to – 40 ± 2 °C. The maximumtime interval between test temperature extremes is 30 minutes. This procedure is to be repeated until 10 total cycles are complete, after which all test cells and batteries are to be stored for 24 hours at ambient temperature (20 ± 5 °C). For large cells and batteries the duration of exposure to the test temperature
extremes should be at least 12 hours.

Hero;
感謝您的指正與提醒,已經訂正了!

振動(Vibration):
模擬運輸過程中所可能碰到的振動。
15min內從7Hz至200Hz完成一次往復對數掃頻正弦振動,3h內完成三維方向12次振動。
This cycle shall be repeated 12 times for a total of 3 hours for each of…
(15min*12=180min)
原文解釋應是指每一個軸向各3Hrs才是,振動測試總共是9Hrs
並非「3h內完成三維方向12次振動」

Hero;
You are right and thanks for the correction.


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